This application concerns the European bison, a priority species listed in Annex II of the Habitat Directive . While Bialowieza is the last place of refuge for the Lowland genetic line of this species, the Carpathian Arch is the only place in Europe where the Lowland-Caucasian line can continue to live in freedom, in large herds. Taking into consideration that half of the Carpathians are in Romania, our reintroduction project represents a decisive step in guaranteeing the survival of this genetic line. In Romania, the European bison disappeared some 200 years ago, due to overhunting. A reintroduction programme has been on going in Vanatori Neamt Nature Park(VNNP) since 2012..The main activities and results are as follows (2014- 2019): 1) Release of a sufficient number of E.bison, to form a breeding, free-ranging herd- 21 individuals were released and nowadays the free population is composed of 45 individuals;2) Monitoring of the free herds - demographic performance (16 new calves were born), behavioural and ecological monitoring (maps and databases have also been made available), genetic and health monitoring; 3) Assuring the necessary financial resources- 348,912 euro coming mainly from our own resources; 4) Public awareness campaign- 367 activities; 5) Dissemination of results - 2 scientific articles, 1 in conference proceedings, 2 books, 463 articles in the press; 6) Mechanism for socioeconomic benefits- the development of a “Bison Land” microregion, a dedicated Local Action Group, a registered trademark; 7) Cooperation at national and international level- with a different entities in Romania (WWF Romania, Foundation Conservation Carpathia) and abroad (Rewilding Europe, European Bison Conservation Center, Aspinall Foundation).